Yogyakarta Borobudur Temple At Age treasure the pride of Jogjakarta

jogjakarta is a very popular area will charm. not only famous for jogjanya gudeg only. but jogjakarta also famous for its university town. because in addition to a place called the garden of students, jogjakarta also has one state university that is famous quality of education. the University of Gajah Mada. when the city was observed jogja best. This city also offers a variety of agro tourism charm that can spoil the entire body. but the positive-positive ajya. if the observed one by one, many beauty yanag in jgja. The following will be described:

Candi Borobudur

Borobudur temple tourist attraction

Borobudur is a Buddhist temple's name is located at Borobudur kampong magelang central java. Temple location more or less than 100 km disebeahbarat dya semarang and 40 km to the northwest jogyakarta. This temple d

leh idirikan Mahayana Buddhist adherents around 800 out earlier in the Syailendra governance. until dengansaat ni Borobudur temple still standing upright with a fascinating charm.

A brief history of the establishment of Borobudur temple

Lots of tori or phrase mejelaskan name of this temple. One of them states that the name is probably derived from the word Sambharabhudhara, which means "mountain" (bhudara) where the slopes are located terraces. In addition there are some other popular etymology. Suppose borobudurborobudur said. Another explanation is that the name comes from two words "coal" and "beduhur". Said coal said to have originated from the monastery, while there is also another explanation in which the coal comes from

Sanskrit language which means temple or monastery complex and beduhur means is "high", or to remind the Balinese language means "above". So the intention is a monastery or hostel located in the high ground. derived from the words "the Buddha" is due to shift sound to be

Historians J.G. de Caspa

ris in his dissertation for a doctorate in 1950 argued that Borobudur is a place of worship. Based on the inscriptions and Kahulunan Reef, Casparis estimates, founder of the Borobudur is the king of the dynasty named Samaratungga Syailendra around 824 AD The giant new buildings can be completed at the time of her daughter, Queen Pramudawardhani. Development of Borobudur estimated half-century time-consuming.

Borobudur Temple is one among the seven wonders of the world, the Borobudur Temple shook up with

be + / - 55,000 m3 of natural stone ynag this. Building height is not up to the top is 42 m,

with 123 m wide basis. straight and strong soaring into the sky and meupakan part of Indonesian history was less hath more than 12 centuries ago. when exactly borobudur temple was established no one know for sure because there is no evidence that written unwritten maupu the show when it didrikan Borobudur so up to this time borodudur andi still full of darkness will be the establishment of the Borobudur temple. but the researchers determined the age of Borobudur temple by observing patterns and carvings bangunannannya Cand - carvings that show the style of central java 8th century BC and then.

Since the construction of the 8 th century BC and then, history comes drowned Borobudur Temple. once completed, the Borobudur temple became the center of research and development of Buddhist religion. the followers of these religions continue to visit the Borobudur temple for studying Buddhist religion, the whole series of reliefs of Borobudur temple erisi about Buddhist religion.

But it did not last long. Along with the decline of Buddhist religion, Borobudur temple abandoned by its adherents. After dynasty disappeared cailendra, Borobudur temple was no news story that explains the history of Borobudur temple, either in writing or anything else.

Along with the migration of Javanese kingdoms puat to the east of Java, then indirectly Borobudur temple was no longer take care of the situation so that Borobudur Temple is no longer terawatt at the time. Dekas of the ash from the surrounding trim gung Borobudur temple as a medium for growing the grass and bushes beluka. Small trees started grew into Borobudur transformed into a stone-covered mound of bush and haunted look that makes people afraid to approach.

In the early 18 th century, British Governor-General named Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, received reports of the existence of a large temple tertutp with bushes. Raffles then sent his officers, H.C. Cornelius to visit the great temple, which was the borobudur. Bush cleared, so that nampaklah a temple with Buddhist statues are many in number. Temple is a sad situation, because so many parts that had collapsed. Many statues are broken, his head was broken and his arm stump. Unfortunately the government did not last long Inggirs. Research and attempt to improve borobudur become dormant again. But since then borobudur starting note. With the opening of the Raffles, many people visit borobudur.

Dutch government which came to power again, getting interested. Unfortunately not everyone means well. Statues and parts of the beautiful temple taken many people or government officials. One example was in 1896, the Dutch East Indies government, through the Resident Kedu, took eight carts full of statues and the beautiful borobudur to gift to the King of Siam. King Chulalangkon was visiting Borobudur and very interested in Buddhist statues from the temple. So diangkutlah gift from the Dutch to the country. Until now the borobudur valuables were kept in the Museum Bangkok, Thailand ..

In the year 1907 until 1911 borobudur heavily restored. Leadership restoration is Ir. Th. Van Erp, a Dutch engineer who was talented and had great concern over the fate borobudur. Very large costs are available, which nearly collapsed borobudur dismantled one by one. Then the stones are scattered collected. The circuits are sought and incorporated separately. Series of experiments the same set was very difficult and long. Need accuracy and patience to do so and should not be in error in that process in order to obtain its original shape when the temple was built.

Van Erp's work ultimately satisfactory, although many parts are missing, but borobudur looks amazing. Unfortunately, natural processes can not be prevented. Rain and dirt always overwrite borobudur, making moss grow fast and some parts of the temple began leaning, tenuous and vanish. Finally on August 10, 1973 the Indonesian government, with the help of funds and experts from around the world to process large-scale restoration of Borobudur. The restoration took place almost perfect, and the results can be enjoyed until now.

Borobudur temple architecture is very interesting, consisting of three main parts of legs, body and head of the temple. In borobudur walls carved reliefs. Relief is a series of stories that depicted in one frame (panel) for one scene. There are thousands of frames in this temple plus hundreds of Buddhist sculptures found in the stupas and niches available on the temple walls.

A unique thing, that this temple was architecturally interesting format or structured mathematically. each bagain leg, body and head candi always have a ratio of 4:6:9. Placement-placement stupanya also have its own meaning, plus the estimated relief of the astronomical berkatian borobudur makes it an interesting historical evidence for the observed.

According to the history of Borobudur temple which has a relief of 1460, built by the King of kings Smaratungga one of the ancient kingdom of Mataram dynasty Syailendra VIII century. In Sri Kahulunan inscription (842 AD) Borobudur temple was built to glorify the Mahayana Buddhism.

There are several opinions about the naming of Borobudur Temple. Casparis quoting from the inscription of Sri Kahulunan the 842 M kamulan i bhumisambharabudara which means holy building that symbolizes the good collection of Bodhisattva. Meanwhile, in his book states Poerbatjaraka Borobudur is the Monastery of Budur (Budur = name of a place / village). Soekmono and Stuterheim argues that Borobudur is a monastery on the hill.

According to the legend of Borobudur Temple was built by an architect named Gunadharma, but the truth of the news is hirtoris not known for certain truth.

The structure of Borobudur temple

Borobudur berundak punden shape, which consists of six levels of a square, three-level circular and a circular main stupa as a peak. Also scattered in all levels-the levels several stupas.

Borobudur is a ten-story clearly illustrates the Mahayana school of philosophy. like a book, Borobudur describes ten Bodhisattva levels which must pass to reach the perfection of the Buddha.

The foot of Borobudur represents Kamadhatu, the world is still dominated by kama, or "low desire". This section is mostly covered by a pile of stone that allegedly made to strengthen the construction of the temple. In the closed structures have an additional 120 panels Kammawibhangga story. A small portion was set aside additional structure so that people can still see the relief in this section.

Four floors with walls above berelief by the experts called Rupadhatu. The floor is rectangular. Rupadhatu the world who have set themselves free from lust, but is still bound by the appearance and shape. This level represents the nature of that is, between nature and the natural bottom up. In part this Rupadhatu Buddha statues found on the wall niches above ballustrade or hallway.

Start fifth to the seventh floor of the walls not berelief. This level is called Arupadhatu (which means no tangible form or not). Circular floor plan. This level represents the nature of, where people are free from all desires and the bond forms and shapes, but have not reached nirvana. Buddha statues are placed in the stupa covered with holes as in a cage. From outside the statues were still dim.

Which describes the highest level being represented by the absence of a stupa, the largest and highest. Stupa described plain without the holes. In the largest stupa is a Buddha statue ever found in an imperfect or unfinished also called Buddha, which disalahsangkakan as Adibuddha statue, but through further research there has never been a statue at the main stupa, which was not completed sculpture was a mistake pemahatnya in the ancient times. according to the belief that one statue in the manufacturing process are not destroyed. Archaeological excavations conducted in this temple this page to find many like this statue.

In the past, several statues of Buddha along with the 30 stone reliefs, two lions, a few times-shaped stone, stairs and gates are sent to the King of Thailand, Chulalongkorn, who visited the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) in 1896 as a gift from the Dutch Government as that.

Borobudur has no worship spaces like the other temples. That there are long passages that are narrow streets. The hallways surrounding the walled temple level by level. In these corridors is expected Buddhist ritual walk around the temple to the right. The shape of the building without room and terraced structure is alleged is the development of berundak punden form, which is a form of original architecture from prehistoric Indonesia.

Borobudur structure when viewed from above form a mandala structure.

Borobudur structure does not use cement at all, but the Interlock system is like Lego blocks that can be attached without glue.



At every level carved reliefs on temple walls. These reliefs read as counter-clockwise or called mapradaksina the Old Javanese language derived from Sanskrit meaning is daksina the east. These reliefs variety of story content, among other reliefs there about wiracaritaRamayana.

Reading of the stories are always the starting relief, and ends on the east side of the gate on each level, starting on the left and ends on the right of the gate. So obviously that the east is the ladder up the real (main) and to the top of the temple, it means that the temple facing the east while the other sides of similar right.

Stages of development of Borobudur

* The first stage

Construction period is not known certainly Borobudur (estimated between 750 and 850 AD). Initially built-storey apartment layout. It seems designed as a pyramid berundak. but later changed. As evidence of stacking order dismantled.

* The second phase

Borobudur foundation widened, plus two square steps and one step directly circle given a large parent stupas.

* The third stage

Steps up the circle with a large main stupa dismantled and removed and replaced by three railroad circles. Stupas built on top of these steps with a large stupa in the middle.

* The fourth stage

There are small changes like making relief changes and curved stairs above the door.
The discovery and restoration of Borobudur
Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor-General of the United Kingdom in Java, heard of the discovery of archaeological objects in the village of Borobudur. Raffles ordered H.C. Cornelius to investigate the discovery site, a hill covered with shrubs.

* 1873 - the first monograph published about the temple.

* 1900 - Dutch East Indies government established a committee of the restoration and maintenance of Borobudur temple.

* 1907 - Theodoor van Erp led the restoration until 1911.

* 1926 - Borobudur was restored again, but stopped in 1940 due to malaise and the crisis of World War II.

* 1956 - Indonesian government requested the assistance of UNESCO. Prof. Dr. C. Coremans came to Indonesia from Belgium to investigate the causes of damage to Borobudur.

* 1963 - Indonesian government issued a decree to restore Borobudur, but the mess after the event G-30-S.

* 1968 - at the conference-15 in France, UNESCO agreed to provide assistance to rescue Borobudur.

* 1971 - Indonesian government established a body chaired by the restoration of Borobudur Prof.Ir.Roosseno.
* 1972 - International Consultative Committee was formed with the involvement of various countries and Roosseno as chairman. UNESCO-sponsored committees provide 5 million U.S. dollars from the cost of 7750 million dollar restoration of the United States. The rest covered Indonesia.

* August 10, 1973 - President Soeharto inaugurated the start of the restoration of Borobudur; restoration was completed in 1984

* January 21, 1985 - bomb attacks that destroyed some of the stupa at Borobudur temple and it was soon restored.

* 1991 - Borobudur designated as a UNESCO World Heritage.


One of the carvings on the walls Karmawibhangga Borobudur temple (the southeast corner of the floor 0)

In accordance with the symbolic meaning of the foot of the temple, reliefs that decorated the walls are covered shelf that illustrates the law of karma. Rows of relief is not a story series (series), but in each frame describes a story that has a causal correlation. Relief is not only give you an idea of human moral turpitude accompanied by penalties that will get, but also the human good deeds and reward. As a whole is a depiction of human life in the circle of birth - life - death (samsara) that never ends, and by the Buddhist tersebutlah chain which will be ended to to perfection.


History is a depiction of the Buddha in a row of relief (but not a complete history) which starts from the Buddha's descent from heaven Tusita, and ends with the first sermon in the Deer Park near the city of Banaras. These reliefs lined the stairs on the south side, after a row exceeded the relief of 27 frames starting from the east side of the stairs. The frame 27 described activity, both in heaven and on earth, in preparation to welcome the presence of the last incarnation as the candidate of the Bodhisattvas are Buddhist. Reliefs depicts the birth of the Buddha in this arcapada as Prince Siddhartha, son of the King and Queen Maya Suddhodana of State Kapilavastu. Relief amount to 120 frames, which ended with the first discourse, which is symbolically expressed as play Wheel of Dharma, the Buddha's teaching is called dharma also means "law", while represented as a wheel of dharma.

Jataka and Awadana

Jataka tales are stories of the Buddha before he was born as Prince Siddharta. Protrusion of the contents is the subject of good works, which distinguishes the Bodhisattvas from any other creature. Indeed, the collection service / good deed is a preparation stage in the level of effort towards the Buddhahood.

Awadana while basically similar to the Jataka but the culprit is not the Bodhisattvas, but other people and the stories collected in the book which means Diwyawadana sainthood noble deeds, and the book of a hundred stories Awadanasataka or Awadana. In the reliefs of Borobudur temple and awadana Jataka, treated the same, meaning they are in the same row without a distinguishable. The set of the most famous of the life of the Bodhisattvas is Jatakamala or strands Jataka stories, Aryasura and poet who lived in the 4th century AD.


Is a row of reliefs decorate the walls of the hall to-2, is the story of a wandering Sudhana tirelessly in his quest for knowledge about the Supreme Truth by Sudhana True. Description of the frame 460 based on Mahayana Buddhist scripture entitled Gandawyuha, and for the lid on the story of another Bhadracari.

Posted in March 4th, 2008

borobudur temple heritage facilities

Posted in March 4th, 2008

Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center has several falisitas, among others:


Library of Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center has a collection of more than 4283 books of 1287 and 4084 titles archive collection of books Borobudur Restoration Project. The books explore the library collection about Borobudur that includes the study of history, archeology, architecture, conservation, geology and photography. In addition there is also a collection of books covering pure science of Physics, Biology and Chemistry. In accordance with the duties and functions to do research, in the library have books research / studies and thesis research students from tertiary institutions and private.

Chemistry Laboratory

Charge of implementing the chemical laboratory analysis of samples related to the conservation of cultural conservation bodies. The analysis conducted aimed to determine the chemical composition of solid samples and the levels of chemical compounds in water / solution. Samples can be analyzed include stone, brick, soil, metal, ceramic, wood, salt deposits, and other materials bcb. In addition, water samples, including ground water, rain water, well water, and waste water washing. Solid sample analysis carried out by proksimat analysis through thermal destruction process at 900oC followed by dissolving with dilute HCl. Parameters that can be analyzed include the levels of silica, calcium, aluminum, magnesium, iron, copper, lead, zinc, sodium, sulfate, chloride, carbonate, organic content, nitrogen / protein and several other parameters.

Other analysis parameters of water quality include pH, kondiktivitas (electrical conductivity), turbiditas (turbidity), the value of permanganate, COD, asiditas / alkalinity, hardness, solids, content of cations and anions, and others. Analysis were performed using the method Gravimetry, titrimetri, spectrophotometry, and other instrumental. Equipment is owned laboratory instrumentation including spectrophotometers, flamefotometer, pH-meters, turbiditymeter, and conductivitymeter. In addition, other analysis tools include mikroburet, mikrokjehldahl apparatus, and analytical balance (accuracy 0.0000 g). Other supporting equipment includes Muffle furnace, hot plate-stirrrer, auto-shaker, centrufuge, acid cabinet, heater, oven, krusibel platinum, and various tools of analysis tools from the glass. Existing facilities include the analysis of space, administrative space and storage of chemicals.

Microbiology Laboratory

This laboratory is devoted to research and treatment efforts bcb damage caused by biological factors, both the fabric bcb stone, brick, and wood. Bcb damage caused by biological factors, among others by the moss, algae, lichen, fungi, and bacteria. Efforts to eradicate the handling of the damage including bodies that have been grown and prevent regrowth of organisms destroyer

Studies conducted among other things: investigate the character bcb damage caused by biological factors, identify the organisms using a variety of destructive methods of analysis, testing for biossay if materials can be used to eradicate these perusah bodies, research to control the use of chemical safety in eradicating the remains destroyer.

Microbiology laboratory equipped with facilities including: the laboratory, green house, Binocular microscope, autoclave, ovens, and other equipment.

Laboratory petrograpbic

Laboratory petrograpbic Borobudur Heritage Conservation duty to perform testing and analysis of samples such as stone, brick, plaster, soil and others. The sample can be derived from Borobudur Temple, objects of cultural conservation at home and abroad and other agencies in need. In addition to testing conservation materials before these materials are applied to material objects such as cultural conservation Borobudur, either new material or substance at all that has been used before. The following is a brief description of laboratory capability petrograpbic Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center.

1). Ability Analysis: Analysis of physical properties and petrograpbic

Soil: type, color, density, structure, water content, permeability, consistency limits, grain distribution, and Petrology

Stone: type, color, density, density, water content, porosity, tension, texture, structure, hardness, type and composition of minerals

Bata: color, texture, structure, hardness, tension, composition, DTA

Pottery: color, texture, structure, hardness, composition, DTA

Ceramics: color, texture, structure, hardness, composition, DTA, glazing

Plaster: color, texture, structure, hardness, composition, density, density, water content, porosity

Testing konservan: color, density, degree of consistency, when a thick, dry time, when hardened, tension, shear strength, plasticity, elasticity, time changing shape

2) Equipment owned by: Universal Testing Machine (determines strong press, tension), Compression strengh (specify strong press), Helium porosimeter (determining porosity), Analitical balance (weighing the sample), Binocular microscope (see the texture of the sample)

Laboratory SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope)

1) Ability Analysis: Analysis of the microstructure

2) Equipment owned: Electron microscopy (to determine the microstructure of solid samples), Ultra cut (cutting the sample), Grinding (sample smoothing), Ion scutter (sample coated with carbon or gold)

Green House

Green House is one of complementary facilities to conduct microbiological and physical analysis. With the isolation facility, climate data recording devices, like evaporation, shower, etc., can simulate the micro-climate conditions that vary and to simulate the effect of water on the material by creating artificial water droplets.

Field Laboratory

1) Experiments on the water kapilarisasi brick building, the purpose of this experiment: find a negative impact on water kapilarisasi brick building; determine brick building models of the most effective way to overcome the effects of water kapilarisasi.

Model experiment: 5 pieces of construction bricks

2) Experiment technique brick temple restoration materials, the purpose of this experiment: find out the process and the type of damage / decay that occurs at each brick miniature model; understand the effectiveness of each technique restoration materials against damage / weathering of bricks; determine materials engineering restoration technique the best brick temple.

Model experiment: 4 pieces of miniature brick temple 3) Manual climatological stations, goal: find out whether climate conditions in micro and makroklimatologi, such as: air temperature, air humidity, wind direction and kecapatan, evaporation, precipitation, etc.

4) Automatic weather system (AWS)


Fotogrammetri is a method of measuring and drawing using photographs. Object data recording is done by the stereo image, where the objects fitted control points are measured position. Measurement / object representations made by flotter stereo monitoring beginning with the formation of the model in accordance with the desired scale. Fotogrammetri initially used for mapping, which is shooting from the air. Therefore this method has high accuracy, then later developed control every aspect needs such as architecture, industrial, medical and others. Likewise, the equipment, also developed in accordance with technological progress. Fotogrammetri in Central Study and Conservation of Borobudur is also used to measure and interests related to Borobudur Temple also for other objects of cultural conservation in Indonesia.

Vision and Future Challenges

Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center is a Unit within the Directorate General of History and Antiquities Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Establishment of Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center is not separated from Borobudur Restoration Project in 1973 to 1983. To handle the Borobudur Temple was completely restored needs treatment, observation and ongoing research. Therefore, in 1991 it stood the Hall Study and Conservation of Borobudur Heritage. In the year 2006 based on the Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Tourism Tax: PM.40/OT.001/MKP-2006 dated 7 September 2006 changed its name to the Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center. Actually in the beginning is another form of the Center for Studies of Borobudur. Function as a center of education and training of technical personnel in the field of conservation and restoration. Some supporting facilities and technical personnel who master the field of conservation, restoration and conservation in particular, deliver Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center to be implementing the training of technical personnel for the conservation and restoration of national institutions and international levels. In addition, Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center also helps conserve historical and archaeological heritage throughout Indonesia, even in Southeast Asian countries.

Based on the Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Tourism Tax: PM.40/OT.001/MKP-2006 on 7 September 2006, the Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center has the main task of carrying out studies in the field of conservation, civil engineering, architecture, geology, biology, chemistry, archeology, and implement technical training of conservation and maintenance of Borobudur and other ancient relics. To conduct these tasks Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center has the following functions:

1. Implementation of conservation studies, civil engineering, architecture, geology,
biology, chemistry, and archeology at the Borobudur Temple and the environment
Other ancient relics
2. Implementation and utilization of conservation studies, civil engineering,
architecture, geology, biology, chemistry, and archeology at the Temple neighborhood
Borobudur and other ancient relics
3. Implementation and development services, and training technical personnel in
archaeological heritage conservation areas
4. Implementation study Borobudur site conservation, heritage and
Other ancient
5. Perform maintenance, security and maintenance of collections Temple
6. Implementation documentation and publications and heritage sites of Borobudur
Other ancient
7. Implementation of administrative affairs and household Center

Auth start with, the Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center has the task of caring for other than Borobudur temple as a World Heritage (World Heritage) with the number 592/1992, also has various facilities to support the implementation of the Auth. Conservation

Relic of Borobudur has a chemistry laboratory, microbiology, physical / petrograpbic, and SEM (scaning electron microscopy). The existence of this laboratory to develop a variety of conservation and study methods to better conservation of stone, brick, wood, and others. In addition, to test conservation materials as a substitute a safer, more effective and efficient. Materials that have been tested for the implementation of recommended conservation of cultural conservation bodies in Indonesia. Even the Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center will help the implementation of sample analysis from other institutions, students who are conducting research, as well as private parties in need. Not only laboratory research, but also has a variety of archive photographs, pictures, books, and more on the restoration of Borobudur temple to temple Borobudur monitoring activities are continuously carried out by Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center.

Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center also involve some cooperation with experts from the University of Gadjah Mada as a resource in the implementation of the study / study of the conservation sector, civil engineering, architecture, geology, biology, chemistry, and archeology at Borobudur environment and other ancient relics. In addition, as the technical training of conservation and restoration of cultural objects are routinely reserves implement conservation and restoration training.
Over an organization or institution can not be separated from the vision and mission to provide direction to future planning for the Auth implement more focused, systematic, comprehensive, and oriented to the success of the program. Planning begins with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Directorate General of Planning History and Antiquities, and Auth Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center, then established Vision and Mission Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center 2005 - 2009, namely:


"Realization of Borobudur preservation as a World Heritage and Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center as a center of study and training of conservation cultural conservation body"

To achieve the vision set the mission as follows:

1. Realization of Borobudur preservation as a World Heritage
2. Realization of Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center as a center of study
conservation training and cultural conservation bodies
3. Realization of human resources professionals in the field of objects conservation reserve
4. Realization of cooperation within and outside the country in the field of conservation bodies
cultural conservation

Five Main Pillars

Auth Observing Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center, there are five major pillars that need to be developed to enhance the preservation of Borobudur temple on one side and improve the performance of the functions and Conservation Center on the other. The five main pillars are as follows:

1. Preservation of Borobudur temple as World Heritage

Borobudur temple was first renovated in the year 1907-1911 by van Erp to repair and restore the parent Arupadatu and stupas. The second restoration in 1973-1983 by the government of Indonesia with the assistance of UNESCO and donor countries. The second phase of restoration is to repair and restore parts Rupadatu (body temple). Although the restoration is declared complete, but still left a big job of maintenance, maintenance, and preservation as a World Heritage. Borobudur Temple as one of the great works of the ancestors of Indonesia and was established as one of World Heritage (World Heritage) would require maintenance, maintenance, and preservation efforts in particular in accordance with the standards of maintenance as the remains of World Heritage.
In fact the preservation of Borobudur Temple must have been influenced by two main factors, namely internal factor and external factors. The internal factor is the aspect of material and construction aspects of the temple. While external factors that affect the sustainability of Borobudur Temple is environmental factors, whether they are Biotis (moss, algae and other micro-organism) and who are abiotis (hot sun, rain, humidity, etc.). Both of these factors interact with each other which in turn can affect the sustainability of the Borobudur Temple. Moreover Borobudur temple buildings are in place that is open so that environmental factors are abiotis, especially the influence of rain water, a great effect on the preservation of Borobudur Temple building.

In addition there are also other factors that could affect the sustainability of Borobudur temple as the negative impact of the utilization as a tourist attraction. Intensive utilization as a tourist attraction, among others may cause pressure on the carrying capacity (carrying capasity) both to the building of the temple and the environment.
Therefore, to minimize the damage caused by factors that cause the damage and negative impacts of the utilization of various forms of monitoring carried out continuously. This continuous monitoring also aims to create conditions keterawatan (state of conservation) as standard keterawatan as World Heritage. Routine monitoring conducted on the Borobudur and the environment, among others:

1. Monitoring keterawatan stone temple
2 Monitoring environmental impacts
3 Monitoring geohidrologi
4 Monitoring leakage temple
5 Monitoring the stability of the structure of the temple and hill
6 Monitoring the use and security of the temple

2. BKPB as a center of study and conservation studies

Conservation is a conservation actions undertaken to maintain and preserve objects of cultural conservation with modern and traditional ways in an attempt to prevent damage and decay further. Conservation of cultural conservation bodies in Indonesia has undergone various developments, both in methods, techniques, and technical procedures. This is certainly influenced by many factors including knowledge of materials science (materials), knowledge about the process of destruction (degradation) of materials, knowledge of konservan materials, knowledge of conservation methods, and so on.

In addition to factors mentioned above, conservation treatment must be influenced by external factors, especially the local micro-climate factors. This is because the body generally vulnerable cultural conservation of the influence of climatic factors. Therefore, conservation issues can be a complex problem if the various factors have mutual influence.

The complexity of the problem of conservation of cultural conservation body would be a challenge for the Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center to conduct research studies and conservation, civil engineering, architecture, geology, biology, chemistry, and archeology. Studies and cross-disciplinary study is directed to produce a new method is more suitable in terms of conservation of cultural conservation bodies.

To develop conservation methods are the Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center on an ongoing basis to study and review of the conservation sector, civil engineering, architecture, geology, biology, chemistry, and archeology of Borobudur and other ancient relics. In addition, methods of conservation in traditional ways, especially the preservation of wood and metal, are owned by the Indonesian people as a local genius who passed on from generation to generation. But the local genius who is part of the local wisdom is owned by the Indonesian people are getting lost and forgotten. Therefore, conservation methods in the traditional way to dinventarisir and scientifically reviewed so that it can be developed more in accordance with the purposes and kemanfaatannya for the present and future. In addition, the existence of global climate change of global warming (global warming) would be a challenge for the conservator to develop methods, techniques, and conservation procedures that can minimize negative impacts due to global warming.

To support the study and the study of Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center is equipped with Chemical Laboratory, Microbiology Laboratory, Laboratory petrograpbic, SEM Laboratory, Laboratory Field, Green House, Photogrammetry, and Station Climatology. Laboratory function is very important as a means to analyze data and study results of studies that require laboratory analysis. For that purpose, the existence and function of the laboratory also needs to be developed through the development of laboratory analysis.

With activities in the field of strategic studies and conservation studies is expected to generate new methods for handling objects conservation heritage, and can restore the function of Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center as a center of study and the study of cultural conservation reserve items which not only national level but international.

3. Professional HR Development

Auth one of Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center is conducting training technical personnel in the field of conservation of archaeological heritage. This implies that technical workers in the field of conservation needs to be prepared with various forms of education and training so that the conservator power-ready and professional. Even more energy is a human curator who has a key position in the conservation effort to preserve cultural objects.

As time goes by, and have not be avoided, is the change of generations. The old generation of human resources with expertise in the field of restoration and conservation of the former were directly involved in restoration projects in 1973-1983 Borobudur largely been many who retire. Even at two or three years experts from the older generation has retired all. Substitution of this generation must not only occur in the environment of Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center but also the environment all BP3. Therefore kaderisasi and regeneration experts in the field of restoration and conservation is a program that should be prioritized. Related to increasing the professionalism of human resources in the field of conservation and restoration training activities, bintek, apprenticeship, etc. programmed to continuously and sustainably to produce a new generation of experts in the field of conservation and restoration of objects of cultural reserves.

With the change from the centralized system of government to the decentralized local governments (provinces, districts, and cities) already have the authority to take measures to preserve objects of cultural conservation in their respective regions. Implementation of authority in every province, district, and cities must contain the consequences of the need for the availability of capable human resources in the field of preservation of cultural conservation bodies. In response to such conditions would be a challenge, the need to prepare training programs or that can produce bintek recruitment cultural conservation conservationists object in the autonomous region.

4. Publication and dissemination of information

In a virtual world that can be accessed through the Internet, the name Borobudur has become an icon. This can be evidenced when the call through the search with borobudur password (or other words related to Borobudur, the stupa for example, relief, buddha, etc.), various writings and information about the Borobudur Temple was presented by the various web site, home page , or portals, both located in Indonesia and overseas. Even the word borobudur not only related to the Borobudur temple but also associated with the name of the hotel, travel agency, restaurants, and so on. This all shows and have a meaning that Borobudur was worldwide through a network or the internet virtual world. It is therefore strategically if the publication and dissemination of information on Borobudur temple via the Internet network optimized (see / open: www.konservasiborobudur.org).

By utilizing this web site optimally the information about the Borobudur temple with various forms of conservation efforts can be disseminated through the Internet. Moreover Borobudur Temple as one of Indonesia's major work which contains a variety of knowledge are like wells that never dry to take water. Also through the Internet the results of research relating to the conservation of cultural conservation bodies can be published so that it can be accessed by the general public.

Publication and dissemination of information not only through the Internet but also still use the media publications, among others in the form of newsletters / journals, publishing books, websites, documentary films, exhibitions, and so on. Through various media, the community will get various forms of information about the Borobudur and matters relating to the preservation of cultural conservation bodies.

5. Cooperation between the parties

In principle, the preservation of the remains of the culture, in this case is the object heritage, can not only be done by one party, but must be synergistic among stakeholders (stakeholders), namely the government, communities, NGOs, academics, and related parties other . Moreover Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center who assumed the maintenance of Auth implement Borobudur temple as World Heritage, conducting studies / research in the field of conservation, and implement guidance and training of technical conservation, collaboration and coordination with the stakeholders to be one key to success.
Cooperation and coordination with relevant stakeholders not only in the perspective of maintenance and management of Borobudur temple, but also to improve the quality of the results of the study dn studies in the field of conservation. Therefore, cooperation with academic circles and universities need to be fostered and developed, so the partnership could be established to develop and study and study new methods in the field of conservation.

Policy Direction

To develop the five pillars, as already described above, the Policy Direction that are constructed are as follows:

1. Improving the management of Borobudur temple in accordance with the principles of
World Heritage
2. Optimizing applied research related to
conservation of cultural conservation bodies
3. Optimizing the role of the laboratory can be more efficient to
objects conservation cultural conservation
4. Increase cooperation with universities and affiliated institutions
both nationally and internationally in the field of conservation
5. Develop methods preserve objects of cultural conservation
6. Conducted training objects conservation cultural conservation
7. Optimizing the publication of Borobudur and body reserves
other cultures to the public
8. Increasing the capacity of human resources conservation areas preserve objects of cultural


From the above description can be identified that there are four challenges ahead facing the Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center, namely:

1. Improved preservation of Borobudur Temple
2. Increasing the study / review of conservation areas
3. Improving the quality of human resources conservation areas
4. Increased build a network of cooperation

If four challenges are actually used as an opportunity as well as barriers (barriers) for increased performance, then the alternative is to bridge the activities so that the strategic vision of Borobudur Heritage Conservation Center which was launched can be achieved.


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